A PAPER OF  ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING MANAGEMENT About COMMUNICATIVE MATERIALS FOR LARGE CLASS      Arranged by: Group VII AHMAD SYUKRI    :    408 445 JULAIHA DALIMUNTE    :    408 364 SOSNI EFRITA    :    408    Lecturer : DARMAYENTI, M. Pd     ENGLISH DEPARTMENT A FACULTY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN) IMAM BONJOL OF PADANG 2010 M / 1432 H COMMUNICATIVE MATERIALS IN LARGE CLASS  1.    INTRODUCTION Much of communicative material now available was developed for small classes of adult learners. Much less communicative material has been written specially for large classes of school children and so for many teachers it is either a case of making do with ild material or trying to adapt the new.  As basicly, there are three elements that contained at any language teaching materail, they are : •    Data (this may or may not be linguistic) •    Information on the language- or grammar  •    A task (usually identified by an impoerative) As a teacher you always need to ask what typr of interaction or communicative your task promote. If you find the majority of the tasks you use use only generate question and answer patterns, then you need to introduce more communicative activities. Communicative materials in the large class discuss the principles for exploiting and adapting materials for large class use. 2.    Characteristics of communicative activities  The sort of task we chooe will depend our view of language teaching, but genuinely communicative activities will have the following characteristics:     They involve using language for a purpose .     They create a desire to communicative. This means there must be some kind of ‘gap’ which may e information, opinion, affect or reason which students seek to bridge.     They encourage students to be creative and constribute their ideas.     They focus on the message and students consentrate on ‘what’ they are saying rahter than how they are saying it.     The students work independently of the teacher.     The students determine what they want to say or write. The activity is not designed to control what the students will say. A first step is to analyse the material we are using to see whether they meet the criteia outlined above. Large lecture halls impose physical and logistical constraints on what you can do effectively. But there are tried and true techniques to keep students interested: •    Interactive Lecture techniques can be used in any size classroom, as can Just-in-Time Teaching. (These links take you to the Starting Point pages on teaching techniques.) Interactive lectures are lectures interspersed with brief in-class activities that require students to use the information or concepts presented in the lecture. In Just-in-Time Teaching, students respond electronically to web-based assignments, due a few hours before class. The instructor then briefly reviews student responses to see what to focus on during the class period. •    Beating the Numbers Game: Effective Teaching in Large Classes lists in-class activities, out-of-class group exercises, and other ideas for keeping students engaged in large classes. The author, Richard Felder, is a chemical engineering professor at North Carolina State University, and an active researcher on the topic of how people learn. •    How to Create Memorable Lectures offers tips on getting and keeping students’ attention and giving them opportunities to review and apply important concepts. This article is from Rick Reis’ Tomorrow’s Professor Mailing List. •    Postings from Rick Reis’ “Tomorrow’s Professor” Mailing List:  o    Making the First-Year Classroom Conducive to Learning explores approaches to improved learning in large class settings such as introductory level courses. o    Teaching Large Evening Classes looks at four effective strategies in teaching large, often one night per week, evening courses. •    The effective use of technology and group work are two ways to enhance large classes, increase student engagement, and minimize the time you spend grading…. See the next sections of this page for details.    3.    Exploiting the textbook A first step towards solving the materials problem is to consider ways in which the text book yo u are using ca be exploited communicatively. In doing this you should consider whether you can make the content more interesting by introducing new tasks or improving the way in which the material is presented. 4.    Using a narrative Many teacher have to build much of language teaching programme around textbooks which are essentially collections of narrative texts. This text is flexible resource which can be used in variety of ways. Example of narrative text and practice of this material: 34 Quick Work Ted Robinson has been worried all the week. Last Tuesday he received a letter from the local police. In the letter he was asked to call at hte station. Ted wondered why he was wanted by the police, but he went to the station yesterday and now he is not worried any more. At the station, he was told by a smiling policeman that his bicycle had been found. Five days ago, the policeman told him, the bicycle was picked up in a small village four hundred miles away. It is now being sent to his home by train. Ted was most surprised when he heard the news. He was amused too, because he never expected the bicycle to be found. It was stolen twenty years ago when Ted was a boy of fifteen! The teacher ways: Activity type    Rationale    Description Choral and individual repetition    To practice rhythm, reduced vowels, stress, to fix pattern in students’ mind    ‘He was asked to call at the station’,  Teacher gets students to repeat and identify reduced vowels and stress. Drill     Fixing patterns in students’ mind, practicing forms, illustrating simple question and answer exchange    teacher establishes situation. students are friends of ted and want to ask about experiance. teacher has prompts on card, e.g   teacher indicates student 1 and student 2. teacher holds up appripriate card. student 1 looks at card a abd says ‘have you been worried this week?’. Student 2 looks at B and says ‘yes, I have’ Structured role play and dicourse chain*    Gives slightly more freedom but still practices structure. Could be open controled.             Information Gap    Allows freer use of language. Injects elements of fun adn challenge. Control possible if teacher decides who should speak.    Teacher shows picture of Ted’s bike 20 years ago to one half of class and picture of Ted’s bike when it was found to other. Students ask questions to dicover differences and then state: ‘The seat was damaged’. ‘The was removed’., ect. Dialogue building     Transfer of language to different context    Teacher sets scene for students : you are arrive home to find your house burgled an vadalised. You telephone the police. Teachers elicits and builds up conversation. A  : My house was burgled last night B  : What was taken? A  : My bracelet and my purse B  : Was anything  damaged? Ect. Personalisation *    Change to talk freely and find out about one another by completing a questionaire.    Students asked to find out who has been robbed, who knows someone who was roobed; what was stolen; was it found; was it damaged, ect. Paralel writing     Written consolidation the passive    Teacher writes short report on incident that has been investigated. Class builds up similar but diffirent incident. Students write reports using teacher’s report as a model. * Discourse chain sudents are given the outline of a dialogue in functional terms e.g great, apologize, ect. They have to find the words that macth the function and build up a dialogue using the clues. *Personalization activity which draws significantly on the students’ own experience.      5.    Improving dialogues Communicative language teaching emphasises the importance exposing the students to sample of ‘real’ language so that thay learn to deal with English as it is spoken outside the classroom. Forunately a lot of recent material has been designed to meet this need, how to make a natural dialoges, the following ideas may help: Make your own recordings One simple but effective device might be to make your own recording which is based on the original but would include fillers, hesitation devices and weak forms. Cut down on what you use in the class  6.    Some principles of material adaptation A lot of tradisional textbook material can be made more more communicative by a number of simple but powerful procedures a.    Create an information gap One of simplest ways of creating an information gap during pair work is for one of the students to cover up part of, or shut, the textbook. This means that one of the students has access to information the other students does not have and there is a reason for asking and answering quetions. b.    Introduce an element personalisation Personalisation involves encouraging students to make constribution from their own knowledge, experience and view of the world and it is powerful way encouranging them to communicate. Task such as the technique above can be difficult to handle in a large class, with students who are not used to working independently, but the principles can be applied to any material by the use of the following techniques.  •    Getting the students to relate to the topic by eliciting their knowledge of the topic in the warm up phase.  •    Getting students to provide prompts e.g a task like ‘write down fivr things you need to fix in your house’ could be used to generage the prompts for practice about the house. •    Getting students to use language presented in context related to their own experiance. •    Relate practice material to the student’s own experience.  c.    Make use of the student’s imagination Texts, visuals and even sound material can all be stimulus for task in which students go beyond waht is provided by reponding to questions. d.    Make use of the student’s personal resources  Getting them to use their own resources for learning is one way of exploiting this.  7.    Adapting communicative techniques The interest in teaching English as communication means that there are now several interesting and useful handbook which contain example of communicative activities. Some og these activities include : •    Mingling activities  •    Ranking activities Make the rank based on analyze, an example nasa game.  •    Value clarification •    Problem solving task •    Mini project Although some of these ideas originated in school classrooms they may need adapting for your particular classes. The following questions are specially relevant in assessing the suitability of such material. 1.    What are the management risks involved? 2.    Is the task cultural acceptable? 3.    Does the task pose an appropriate linguistic challenge? 4.    Does the task pose an appropriate cognitif challenge? 5.    Does the task require outside material such as dictionaries ect? Make the task more acceptable, other ways of making a task more acceptable: •    Give students more extra time to cmplete a task. •    Help students with the instruction. •    Give them a pre-task to introduce them to the language and/or the cultural concepts they will need. •    Retain teh elements of the task while changing the cultural content to suit the age, interest and needs of your students. 8.    Games and competition            BIBLIOGRAPHY  Nunan, David. 1989. Language Teaching Methodology. A textbook for Teacher. Prentice Hall International.  http://www.google.com


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